Course Content
Define Information Technology
Definition and scope of Information Technology.
Understanding the Input Processing Output Storage Cycle
How does your computer turn input into output? We explore the intricacies of Input Processing Output Storage (IPOS).
Evaluating the Relative Merits of Cloud Storage and Local Storage
Analysing the Merits of Various User Interfaces
We discuss the relative merits of the various types of user interfaces.
Tailoring Computer Systems for Specific Purposes
Evaluate the suitability of a given computer system for a specific purpose
Troubleshooting Basic Computer Hardware Problems
Learn the basics of troubleshooting common computer hardware issues.
Distinguishing Between Data and Information
Information from Online Sources
We evaluate the reliability of information obtained from online sources.
Data Validation vs. Data Verification
Computer Fundamentals
    About Lesson

    In the realm of technology and information management, the terms “data” and “information” are often used interchangeably. However, understanding the distinction between these two concepts is crucial for effective decision-making and knowledge management. In this article, we will explore the difference between data and information, their sources, and the various document types associated with them.

    Data: Raw Unprocessed Facts

    Data can be defined as raw, unprocessed facts that have not yet been organized or analyzed. It exists in its most basic form, lacking any context or meaning.

    Characteristics of Data

    Data exhibits several key characteristics:

    • Unprocessed: Data is unorganized and has not undergone any manipulation or analysis.

    • Objective: Data is unbiased and impartial, devoid of any interpretation or evaluation.

    • Raw: Data is often presented in its most basic form, without any contextual information.

    Sources of Data

    • Data can be sourced from various entities, including:

    • People: Individuals generate data through their actions, behaviors, and interactions.

    • Places: Locations, such as stores, websites, or sensors, can produce data based on activities or environmental conditions.

    • Things: Objects and devices, such as machines, sensors, or IoT devices, generate data through their operations or measurements.

    Information: Processed Data

    Information can be considered as processed data that has been organized, analyzed, and given context or meaning. It is the result of transforming raw data into a meaningful form. It is able to provide insights, knowledge, or understanding.

    Characteristics of Information

    Information possesses the following characteristics:

    • Processed: Information is the result of processing and analyzing data to derive meaning and relevance.

    • Contextual: Information is presented within a context or framework, enabling better interpretation and understanding.

    • Actionable: Information is intended to guide decision-making and drive actions based on its insights.

    Transformation of Data into Information

    The transformation of data into information involves several stages, including:

    • Data Collection: Gathering relevant data from various sources.

    • Data Organization: Structuring and arranging data to facilitate analysis.

    • Data Analysis: Applying analytical techniques to identify patterns, trends, and relationships within the data.

    • Contextualization: Providing additional context and interpretation to make the data meaningful.

    Document Types

    Different document types are used to represent and communicate data and information. These include:

    Turnaround Documents: Documents that are created and returned to the sender after processing, such as order forms or surveys.

    Human-Readable Forms: Documents designed to be easily understood and interpreted by humans, such as reports, memos, or presentations.

    Machine-Readable Forms: Documents that are primarily processed by machines or computer systems, such as XML files or database entries.

    Hard Copy vs. Soft Copy: Hard copies refer to physical, printed documents, while soft copies are digital versions that can be accessed and displayed on electronic devices.


    Distinguishing between data and information is fundamental to effective data management and decision-making. While data represents raw facts, information adds context, meaning, and value to these facts. Understanding the various document types associated with data and information can further enhance their utilization and communication. By recognizing the differences between data and information, organizations and individuals can harness the power of both to gain valuable insights and drive informed actions.