Course Content
Define Information Technology
Definition and scope of Information Technology.
Understanding the Input Processing Output Storage Cycle
How does your computer turn input into output? We explore the intricacies of Input Processing Output Storage (IPOS).
Evaluating the Relative Merits of Cloud Storage and Local Storage
Analysing the Merits of Various User Interfaces
We discuss the relative merits of the various types of user interfaces.
Tailoring Computer Systems for Specific Purposes
Evaluate the suitability of a given computer system for a specific purpose
Troubleshooting Basic Computer Hardware Problems
Learn the basics of troubleshooting common computer hardware issues.
Distinguishing Between Data and Information
Information from Online Sources
We evaluate the reliability of information obtained from online sources.
Computer Fundamentals
    About Lesson

    Computer systems consist of various hardware components that work together to perform different functions. Here are the functions of the major hardware components of a computer system:


    Input Devices

    Input devices allow users to input data and instructions into the computer. Examples of input devices include keyboard, mouse, touchpad, scanner, microphone, and webcam. The function of input devices is to convert physical data or instructions into digital form so that the computer can process them.


    Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    The CPU is the “brain” of the computer and is responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations. It receives data and instructions from the input devices and processes them according to the program’s instructions stored in memory. The CPU consists of two main parts: the control unit, which manages the flow of data and instructions, and the arithmetic logic unit, which performs calculations and logical operations.


    Primary Memory

    Primary memory, also known as main memory, consists of RAM and ROM. RAM (Random Access Memory) is volatile memory that stores data and instructions temporarily while the computer is running. It is used to store data that is currently being processed by the CPU. ROM (Read-Only Memory) is non-volatile memory that stores instructions that are required to boot up the computer. It also stores the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) that manages communication between the hardware components.


    Secondary Storage

    Secondary storage, also known as auxiliary storage, is used to store data and programs for long-term storage. Examples of secondary storage devices include hard disk drives, solid-state drives, and optical drives such as CDs and DVDs. Secondary storage is non-volatile memory, which means that data is not lost when the computer is turned off.


    Output Devices

    Output devices allow the computer to communicate its results to the user. Examples of output devices include monitor, printer, speaker, and headphones. The function of output devices is to convert digital data into a human-readable form so that the user can interpret the computer’s results.


    In summary, the major hardware components of a computer system work together to process data and perform various functions. Input devices allow users to input data and instructions, the CPU processes the data, primary memory stores data and instructions temporarily, secondary storage stores data for long-term storage, and output devices communicate the results to the user.